January 30, 2015
LTSmin offers different analysis algorithms covering four disciplines (algorithmic backends):
- Symbolic CTL/mu-calculus model checking using different BDD/MDD packages, including the parallel BDD package Sylvan,
- Multi-core LTL model checking using tree compression,
- Sequential LTL model checking, with partial-order reduction and optional BDD-based state storage, and
- Distributed LTS instantiation, export, and minimization modulo branching/strong bisimulation.
The PINS interface divides our model checking tools cleanly into the two These algorithms each have their own strength, depending on the input model's structure and verification problem. For models with combinatorial state structure, the symbolic tools can process billions of states per second using only few memory. Models that exhibit much concurrency can be reduced significantly using partial-order reduction. Models with more dependencies can be explored with LTSmin's multi-core algorithms, which employ aggressive lossless state compression using a concurrent tree data structure. Finally, our distributed minimization techniques can aid the verification of multiple properties on a single state space.
LTSmin supports language independence via its definition of a Partitioned Next-State Interface (PINS), which exposes enough internal structure of the input model to enable the highly effective algorithms above, while at the same time making it easy to connect your own language module. The interface is also simple enough to support very fast next-state functions such as SPIN's (performance comparison here). LTSmin already connects a sizeable number of existing verification tools as language modules, enabling the use of their modeling formalisms:
- muCRL's process algebra,
- mCRL2's process algebra,
- DiVinE's DVE language, based on extended state machines,
- the builtin symbolic ETF format,
- SPIN's Promela via the included SpinS, a SpinJa spinoff,
- UPPAAL's timed automata via opaal,
- SCOOP's process algebra for Markov Automata, and
- POSIX'/UNIX' dlopen API.
The Partitioned Next-State Interface (PINS) splits up the next-state function in different groups. For example, each transition group can represent a line of code in an imperative language module or a summand in a process-algebraic language module. Using the static dependency information between transition groups and state vector variables (most groups only depend on a few variables), LTSmin's algorithms can exploit the combinatorial structure of the state space. This leads to exponential gains in performance for the symbolic algorithms, which can now learn the transition relation on-the-fly in a very effectively way, because it is partitioned. Using the same principle, LTSmin provides transition storing for transition caching with negligible memory overhead.
To connect a new language module, one merely needs to implement the PINS next-state functions and provide some type information on the state vector contents, which should be encoded according to PINS unifying integer vector format. By providing additional transition/state dependency information via the PINS dependency matrices, the symbolic exploration algorithms and PINS2PINS modules (see below) can exploit their full potential. Finally, by providing few additional information on transition guards the partial order reduction algorithms become enabled.
The PINS interface divides our model checking tools cleanly into the two independent parts discussed above: language modules and model checking algorithms. However it also enables us to create PINS2PINS modules, that reside between the language module and the algorithm, and modify or optimize the next-state function. These PINS2PINS modules can benefit all algorithmic backends and can be turned on and off on demand:
- transition storing/caching speeds up slow language modules,
- regrouping speeds up the symbolic algorithms by optimizing dependencies, and
- partial order reduction reduces the state space by dropping irrelevant transitions.
ContributorsOrdered by the number of commits (March 2015) LTSmin's contributors are:
- Alfons Laarman,
- Michael Weber,
- Stefan Blom,
- Jeroen Ketema,
- Jeroen Meijer,
- Elwin Pater,
- Gijs Kant,
- Tom van Dijk,
- Jaco van de Pol,
- Freark van der Berg,
- Mads Chr. Olesen,
- Steven van der Vegt,
- Andreas Dalsgaard,
- Jeroen Keiren,
- Tobias Uebbing,
- Axel Belinfante,
- Sander van Schouwenburg,
- Tien-Loong Siaw and
- Dennis Guck
- Tom van Dijk and Jaco van de Pol Sylvan: Multi-core Decision Diagrams . TACAS 2015
- Gijs Kant, Alfons Laarman, Jeroen Meijer, Jaco van de Pol, Stefan Blom and Tom van Dijk LTSmin: High-Performance Language-Independent Model Checking . TACAS 2015
- Jeroen Meijer, Gijs Kant, Stefan Blom and Jaco van de Pol Read, Write and Copy Dependencies for Symbolic Model Checking . HVC 2014
- Alfons Laarman and Anton Wijs Partial-Order Reduction for Multi-Core LTL Model Checking . HVC 2014
- Tom van Dijk and Jaco van de Pol Lace: Non-blocking Split Deque for Work-Stealing . MuCoCoS 2014
- Gijs Kant and Jaco van de Pol Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games . GRAPHITE 2014
- Alfons Laarman, Elwin Pater, Jaco van de Pol and Michael Weber. Guard-based Partial-Order Reduction . SPIN 2013
- Alfons Laarman, Mads Chr. Olesen and Andreas Dalsgaard, Kim G. Larsen, Jaco van de Pol. Multi-Core Emptiness Checking of Timed Büchi Automata using Inclusion Abstraction . CAV 2013
- Alfons Laarman and David Farago. Improved On-The-Fly Livelock Detection: Combining Partial Order Reduction and Parallelism for DFSFIFO . NASA FM 2013
- Tom van Dijk, Alfons Laarman and Jaco van de Pol. Multi-core and/or Symbolic Model Checking. AVOCS 2012
- Freark van der Berg and Alfons Laarman. SpinS: Extending LTSmin with Promela through SpinJa. PDMC 2012
- Tom van Dijk, Alfons Laarman and Jaco van de Pol. Multi-core BDD Operations for Symbolic Reachability. PDMC 2012
- Tom van Dijk. The parallelization of binary decision diagram operations for model checking. 2012. Thesis
- Sami Evangelista, Alfons Laarman, Laure Petrucci and Jaco van de Pol. Improved Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search. ATVA 2012
- Andreas Dalsgaard, Alfons Laarman, Kim G. Larsen, Mads Chr. Olesen and Jaco van de Pol. Multi-Core Reachability for Timed Automata. FORMATS 2012
- Gijs Kant and Jaco van de Pol. Efficient Instantiation of Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems to Parity Games. Graphite 2012
- Alfons Laarman and Jaco van de Pol. Variations on Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search. PDMC 2011
- Elwin Pater. Partial Order Reduction for PINS. 2011. Thesis
- Tien Loong Siaw. Saturation for LTSmin. 2012. Thesis
- Alfons Laarman, Rom Langerak, Jaco van de Pol, Michael Weber and Anton Wijs. Multi-Core Nested Depth-First Search. ATVA 2011
- Alfons Laarman, Jaco van de Pol and Michael Weber. Multi-Core LTSmin: Marrying Modularity and Scalability . NFM 2011
- Alfons Laarman, Jaco van de Pol and Michael Weber. Parallel Recursive State Compression for Free . SPIN 2011
- Alfons Laarman, Jaco van de Pol and Michael Weber. Boosting Multi-Core Reachability Performance with Shared Hash Tables. FMCAD 2010
- Stefan Blom, Jaco van de Pol and Michael Weber. LTSmin: Distributed and Symbolic Reachability. CAV 2010, LNCS 6174, pp. 354–359.
- Stefan Blom, Jaco van de Pol and Michael Weber. Bridging the Gap between Enumerative and Symbolic Model Checkers, Technical Report TR-CTIT-09-30, CTIT, University of Twente, Enschede. (2009)
- Stefan Blom, Bert Lisser, Jaco van de Pol, and Michael Weber. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation. J Logic Computation (2009)
- Stefan Blom, Jaco van de Pol: Symbolic Reachability for Process Algebras with Recursive Data Types. ICTAC 2008: pp. 81–95
- Stefan Blom, Bert Lisser, Jaco van de Pol, and Michael Weber. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation. ENTCS 198(1): pp. 17–32 (2007)
- Stefan Blom, Simona Orzan: Distributed state space minimization. STTT 7(3): pp. 280–291 (2005)
- Stefan Blom, Simona Orzan: A distributed algorithm for strong bisimulation reduction of state spaces. STTT 7(1): pp. 74–86 (2005)
- Stefan Blom, Izak van Langevelde, Bert Lisser: Compressed and Distributed File Formats for Labeled Transition Systems. ENTCS 89(1): (2003)
- Stefan Blom, Simona Orzan: Distributed Branching Bisimulation Reduction of State Spaces. ENTCS 89(1): (2003)
- lps2lts-sym (BDD-based reachability with mCRL2 frontend)
- dve2lts-mc (multi-core reachability with DiVinE 2 frontend)
- prom2lts-mc (multi-core reachability with Promela SpinS frontend)
- lpo2lts-seq (sequential enumerative reachability with muCRL frontend)
- etf2lts-dist (distributed reachability with ETF frontend)
- lps2torx (TorX testing tool connector with mCRL2 frontend)
- pbes2lts-sym (Symbolic tool reachability tool with PBES frontend: example)
- pins2lts-sym (Symbolic tool reachability tool using the dlopen API: tutorial)
- mapa2lts-sym (Symbolic tool reachability tool with MAPA frontend)
- GNU/Linux (tested on Arch Linux, Ubuntu, Debian, OpenSuSE 11.2)
- MacOS X, version 10.10 "Yosemite"
- MacOS X, version 10.8 "Mountain Lion"
- MacOS X, version 10.7 "Lion"
- MacOS X, version 10.6 "Snow Leopard" (except multi-core muCRL/mCRL2)
- MacOS X, version 10.5 "Leopard" (except multi-core muCRL/mCRL2)
- Cygwin/Windows (tested on Windows 7 with Cygwin 1.7)
- Released Versions
- Snapshots (consult the build server for their constitution)
- ltsmin-master.tar.gz (current snapshot of the master release branch)
- ltsmin-maint.tar.gz (current snapshot of the maint maintenance branch)
- ltsmin-next.tar.gz (current snapshot of the next test branch)
- ltsmin.git (browsable Git repository) This is a read-only Git repository, where the master branch is equal to the released tarball, the maint branch contains fixes on top of master, and the next branch is our development branch containing (unstable) features that will be included in the next release. For direct checkout using git:
$ git clone -b next https://github.com/utwente-fmt/ltsmin.git
First, install the dependencies listed in Section "Build Dependencies" below.
Next, if you are building the software from a Git repository or release snapshot, refer to Section "Building from a Git Repository" for additional set-up instructions. Otherwise, continue by executing the following build instructions:
# Unpack the tarball $ tar xvzf ltsmin-<version>.tar.gz $ cd ltsmin-<version> # Configure $ ./configure --disable-dependency-tracking --prefix /path/
It is a good idea to check the output of
./configure, to see whether
all dependencies were found.
To compile LTSmin execute:
# Build $ make
For compilation with debug options, use the following command line:
# Debug mode $ make CFLAGS="-DLTSMIN_DEBUG -g -O0"
LTSmin's tools can then be run with an option --debug=file.c, to enable debug output from a specific source code file.
To see if LTSmin will run correctly on your system you may execute:
# Run all tests $ make checkTo install LTSmin in the default or given prefix:
# Install $ make install
Additional Build Options
For one-shot builds, the following option speeds up the build process by not recording dependencies:
./configure --disable-dependency-tracking ...
Non-standard compilers, etc., can be configured by using variables:
./configure CFLAGS='-O3' CXXFLAGS='-O3' \ CC='gcc -m64' \ MPICC='/sw/openmpi/1.2.8/bin/mpicc -m64' \ MPICXX='/sw/openmpi/1.2.8/bin/mpicxx -m64' \ ...
This would add some options to the standard
settings used for building to enable more optimizations and force a
64-bit build (for the GCC C compiler). Furthermore, the MPI compiler
wrappers are set explicitly instead of searching them in the current
Note that libraries installed in non-standard places need special attention: to be picked up by the configure script, library and header search paths must be added, e.g.:
./configure LDFLAGS=-L/opt/local/lib CPPFLAGS=-I/opt/local/include
Additional setting of
(DY)LD_LIBRARY_PATH might be needed for the
dynamic linker/loader (see, e.g., "
man ld.so" or "
./configure --help for the list of available variables,
and file INSTALL for further details.
The following additional
make targets are supported:
- Builds everything.
Installs the software into path
Clean the source tree to various degrees. Using
mostlycleanis enough in many cases.
- Builds Doxygen documentation for the source code.
The following external libraries and tools are required for building LTSmin:
Download popt (>= 1.7) from <http://rpm5.org/files/popt/>. We tested with popt 1.14.
Download zlib from <http://www.zlib.net/>.
Download GNU make from <http://www.gnu.org/software/make/>.
Download Flex (>= 2.5.35) from <http://flex.sourceforge.net/>.
Download Apache Ant from <http://ant.apache.org/>. We tested with ant-1.8.2. Note that ant is not required for building from a distribution tarball (unless Java files were modified). Note that we require JavaCC task support for Ant.
Download muCRL (>= 2.18.5) from <http://www.cwi.nl/~mcrl/mutool.html>. We tested with muCRL-2.18.5. Without muCRL, the AtermDD decision diagram package will not be built.
Note that for 64-bit builds, you have to explicitly configure muCRL for this (otherwise, a faulty version is silently build):
For best performance, we advise to configure muCRL like this:
./configure CC='gcc -O2' --with-64bit
Download the latest version of mCRL2 from <http://www.mcrl2.org/>. We tested with mCRL2 release 201409.1. However note issues: 51 (-g|--pins-guards) and 52 (pbes2lts-*). Or you can compile mCRL2 yourself; in SVN revision 13391 the two issues are resolved.
Build and install mCRL2:
cmake . -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=... -DBUILD_SHARED_LIBS=ON make make install
The graphical tools of mCRL2 are not required for ltsmin to work, hence you can also build mCRL2 without:
cmake . -DMCRL2_ENABLE_GUI_TOOLS=OFF -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=... -DBUILD_SHARED_LIBS=ON
Download libDDD (>= 1.7) from <http://move.lip6.fr/software/DDD/>.
In principle, any MPI library which supports MPI-IO should work. However, we tested only with Open MPI <http://www.open-mpi.org/>. Without MPI, the distributed tools (xxx2lts-dits, ltsmin-mpi) will not be built.
Download AsciiDoc (>= 8.4.4) from <http://www.methods.co.nz/asciidoc/>. We tested with asciidoc-8.4.4. Without asciidoc, documentation cannot be rebuilt. For convenience, release tarballs are shipping with pre-built man pages and HTML documentation.
Download xmlto from <http://cyberelk.net/tim/software/xmlto/>. We tested with xmlto-0.0.18. Without xmlto, man pages cannot be rebuilt. Note that xmlto in turn requires docbook-xsl to be installed. We tested with docbook-xsl-1.76.1.
Download Doxygen from <http://www.doxygen.org/>. We tested with doxygen-1.5.5. Without doxygen, internal source code documentation cannot be generated.
See the CADP website on how to obtain a license and download the CADP toolkit.
SCOOPTo use the language frontend for MAPA (Process Algebra for Markov Automata) SCOOP's dependencies must be met. LTSmin is distributed with SCOOP, but to use LTSmin with SCOOP the following packages must be installed.
- GHC's dynamic packages; e.g. on Ubuntu install these with ghc-dynamic. On some OSs GHC's dynamic packages are distributed with GHC itself, such as on Arch Linux. Thus on these OSs GHC's dynamic packages need not be explicitly installed.
- Happy; which can be installed with cabal: cabal install --global happy
- Optionally one can install hashmap (cabal install --global hashmap), this will also build the SCOOP binary. The SCOOP binary allows using the SCOOP tool itself, but is not necessary to use LTSmin's mapa2lts-* tools.
For cross-compilation builds on MacOS X, the Apple Developer SDKs must be installed. They are available from Apple <http://developer.apple.com/tools/download/>, or from the MacOS X installation CDs.
Before building the software as described above, the following commands have to be executed in the top-level source directory:
# Rebuid autotools support $ git submodule update --init $ ./ltsminreconfMake sure you have installed the dependencies below and then continue with the normal installation instructions.
Building from another source than a release tarball requires some extra tools to be installed:
Download automake (>= 1.10) from <http://www.gnu.org/software/automake/>. We tested with automake-1.10.
Download autoconf (>= 2.60) from <http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/>. We tested with autoconf-2.68.
Download libtool (>= 2.2.6) from <http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool/>. We tested with libtool-2.4.SpinS. Promela models can compiled as follows:
spins model.promThis yields a library model.prom.spins, which can be loaded by LTSmin's prom2* tools.
Download a patched version of DiVinE 2.4:
git clone https://github.com/utwente-fmt/divine2.git
cd divine2 mkdir _build && cd _build cmake .. -DGUI=OFF -DRX_PATH= -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=... -DMURPHI=OFF make make install
On MacOS X, option -DHOARD=OFF might have to be added to the
cmake command line to make it compile without errors.
Also, on MacOS X Divine2 only compiles with the GNU std C++ library.
Thus on MacOS X one has to provide the option -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS="-stdlib=libstdc++"
The LTSmin configure script will find the DiVinE installation automatically, if the divine binary is in the search path. With suitable options, the divine compile DVE compiler produces LTSmin compatible libraries:
divine compile -l model.dve
This produces a file "model.dve2C", which can also be passed to LTSmin tools. (This step is done automatically by the LTSmin dve2* tools when passing a ".dve" model, doing it manually is rarely needed.)
$ opaal_ltsmin --only-compile model.xml
This produces a PINS library called "model.so", which can be passed to LTSmin tool opaal2lts-mc (only multi-core reachability and LTL model checking with tree compression is support at the moment).
Scalability of the UPPAAL DBM library required by opaal can be limited without a concurrent allocator. Therefore, we recommend the installation of TBB malloc. The TBB allocator can be loaded transparently using library preloading:
export LD_PRELOAD=libtbbmalloc_proxy.so opaal2lts-mc model.so
Copyright (c) 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 Formal Methods and Tools, University of Twente
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